The guidelines reiterate the main goals of treating heart failure patients: “to relieve symptoms and signs (eg, edema), prevent hospital admission, and improve survival.” Resting heart rate is established as a routine parameter guiding the choice of therapy.1

Ivabradine is recommended for patients with chronic symptomatic systolic heart failure with a class IIa level B recommendation in combination with β-blockers and a class IIb level C in those patients unable to tolerate a β-blocker. In heart failure patients with angina as comorbidity, the recommendation is class I level A.


1. McMurray J, et al. Eur Heart J. 2012;33:1787-1847.

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on the 2012 ESC guidelines for heart failure